The Nature of Losses from Cyber-Related Events: Risk Categories and Business Sectors
"... we do not find a distinct pattern between the frequency of events, the loss severity, and the number of affected records as often alluded to in the literature. We also analyse the severity distribution of cyber related events across all risk categories and business sectors. This analysis reveals that cyber risks are heavy-tailed, i.e., cyber risk events have a higher probability to produce extreme losses than events whose severity follows an exponential distribution. Furthermore, we find that the frequency and severity of cyber related losses exhibits a very dynamic and time varying nature."